Increasing Disasters Risk is often explained by progressing climate change. At the same time there are many influential, yet not discussed, factors. The neglected ones can be found in both environmental (e.g. changing land cover) and social (e.g. evolving risks perception) domains. These factors vary depending on regional conditions. To be better prepared for upcoming threats, communities should not only follow global narratives of climate change, but also to understand their own regional climate associated risks. The proposed research focuses on river-related disasters, communities and goods. On one hand, the project relies on the previously conducted studies of historical changes in rivers hydrological regimes and lifestyles of riverine communities, adapting to changing conditions. The Don and Ural rivers with associated Cossack communities is used as a case study for analyzing these transformations. On the other, many contemporary climate affiliated water security issues could and should be explored for having anthropogenic causes. Sometimes these phenomena are unintentional consequences of trade-offs among various users of water management schemes (e.g. the Aral Sea). In other cases, existing risks could have been intentionally aggravated as an instrument in political or economic conflicts.