This project proposes a first theoretically minded and historically grounded comparative analysis of the emergence, evolution and main features of nation-state citizenship in the Balkans during the modern period (1815-1945). The analysis focuses on the emergence of new nation-states on the political and demographic background of the late Ottoman Empire, on techniques employed for ascribing state citizenship, and on practices of naturalization of aliens. Another major line of research will be the legal status of ethnic, religious, and gender minorities and the emergence of an international regime of minority protection in the Balkans. The project employs a dual comparative perspective: internal, among the Balkan states; and external, among the making of citizenship in the region as a whole, as compared to other European regions. The analysis does not consist of a collection of disparate studies, but highlights the interdependence among them, by employing a relational and transnational approach.