Antal Berkes

Junior Core Fellow
Period of Stay: 
January 2024 - April 2024
Law / Legal studies
University of Liverpool, UK
Project Title: 
Transnational litigation networks in interwar international law
Project Abstract: 

Transnational litigation networks, that is, the cross-border collaboration of interest groups in advancing a cause in international dispute settlement mechanisms, dates well before the post-1990 contemporary system of international law. The so-called optants cases, a set of international disputes in the interwar period opposed individuals who changed their nationality under the Versailles peace treaties (optants) and governments that expropriated the optants’ land properties without due compensation. These litigations involved not only individual claimants backed by their state of nationality and the successor states imposing the land reform, but a series of civil society actors and states that had economic interests at stake in or against land reforms. Without the transnational collaboration of numerous actors of common interest, individual rights could not have been effectively protected. The comparative research of the optants cases in the interwar period enlightens the origin and preconditions of the modern-day transnational litigation networks.